Medieval English, 500-1500
- 1066- Battle of Hastings was fought, where England was defeated by Norman Forces. King Harold II of England is overwhelmed by the Norman forces of William defeated England was fought Battle of Hastings.
- 1215, June 15- King John, son of Henry II, happened to lose the most of English territory and obliged to sign in the Manga Carta. So he is remembered for his unsuccessful diplomacy.
- 1311- Pope established the public celebration of Corpus Christi. The feast of Corpus Christi in the Roman Rite liturgical solemnity the real presence of body and blood of Jesus Christ.
- 1315-1317 Great Feminine struck Europe and resulted in millions of death. The ‘Great Feminine’ started with bad weather in spring and caused failures in Europe. This period was marked by extreme levels level of crime, disease, mass death, and even cannibalism and infanticide.
- 1147-49- The Second Crusade continued in response to the fall of the country of Edessa.
- 1351- Statue of Laborers passed from the British Parliament to suppress the laborer’s voice who demanded increased wages.
- 1153- The Treaty of Winchester also Known as the Treaty of Wallingford was an agreement as reached in England in the summer of 1153. It effectively ended the civil war known as The Anarchy.
- 1362- Foundation of Standard English was established after the adoption of English as a language of nation patronizing old English.
- 1381- Peasant’s Revolution occurred because there was a labor shortage and food was scarce.
- 1382- Wycliffe completes the translation of the Bible which helps to revolt against the corruption of the church.
The Renaissance, 1485-1660.
- 1551-Utopia was later translated into English by Ralph Robinson.
- 1574- London brought compulsory poor rate in order to decrease the poor-rate and London was adopted by other towns too.
- 1576- James Burbage constructed a Permanent house for theoretical performance in England.
- 1618- Thirty Years’ War began in 1618 and ended in 1648. It was the deadliest European religious war. Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers.
- 1613- The Tragedy of Mariam in the history of English Cary was originally published in 1613. This is the first dramatic work of a woman in the history of English literature.
- 1625- Three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland crowned King Charles.
- 1641- People started to revolt in Ireland against Charles misdeed. Ireland was a rebellion against the Puritanism. It means Irish people were against anti-catholic doctrines.
- 1641- Theater as banned by parliament in 1641. But with the arrival of Charles II, drama including theatre got a chance to flower.
- 1642- The first civil war began against the history of England. The supporter of king or tyranny and supporter of democracy or freedom or parliamentary system involved in the civil war.
- 1648- Second Civil war in England began. Thirty Years’ was, religious war, ended.
The Restoration and Eighteenth Century, 1660- 17801
- 1685- James II turns out to be a king after the death of Charles II. James II was fervent Catholic.
- 1688 –The year of the Glorious Revolution.
Parliament members invited William of Orange and his wife Mary Stuart from Holland to intervene in the reign of James II IN England. The great achievement of the Glorious Revolution was the Bill of Rights.
23 .1711- The establishment of the South- Sea Company in order to trade in the South Sea. The company was an establishment with the intention of improvement of trade as well as to important slave.
24.1745- Charles Stuart, son of James Edward Francis arrived in England to manage the power of Jacobite Rebellion.
25.1665- During the Great Plague of London (1665-1666), the disease called bubonic plague killed about 200,000 people in London.
26.1666- The Great Fire of London, which happened in 1666 for five days and destroyed the homes of 70000 of the city’s 80000 inhabitants.
27.1751- ‘Gin Act’ passed forwarding certain lodge regarding alcoholic drink in order to control their uncontrolled sale and consume in the British Parliament.
28.1752- Great Britain switches from the Julian to the modern ‘Gregorian Colander’. The ‘Gregorian Colander’ is today’s modern calendar.
29.1757 – Great Battle of Plessey took place which was the decisive victory of the British East India Company over a Nawab of Bengal and his French allies. The battle consolidated the company’s presence in Bengal. Which later expanded to cover much of India over the next hundred years.
The Romantic Period, 1780-1832
30. 1804- The French Senate crowned Nepoleas as emperor.
- 1805- The work of contemporary British artists established various commercial galleries for a middle-class market.
- 1805- The British Royal Navy fought the Battle of Trafalgar. It was naval engagement and against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies. During the war of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars.
- 1808- In 1808 Peninsular War behind which was a military conflict between Napoleon’s empire. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for the control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
- 1815- The Battle of Waterloo has fought. Napoleon Bonaparte command a French Army
- 1815- Great Britain forced Corn Laws to protect the price of the corn.
- 1819- Peterloo Massacre occurred at St. Peter’s Field, Manchester England. When cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000- 80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation. The action resulted in 400 dead and the event became notorious as the ‘Peterloo Massacre’.
- 1820- In 1820 Hans Christain Oersted proved the long-suspected link between electricity and magnetism.
- 1821- The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution. Greek Revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire.
- 1826- The Zoological find in London they devoted to the conservation of animal and their habitats.
- 1829- Parliament passed the Roman Catholic Relief Act.
American literary studies
41.1937/38- Gender was a salient issue in the antinomian controversy.
- During the 1950s and early 1960s. The terms of analysis associated with the new criticism and generally seemed too many in the profession almost universally applicable.
- 1974 – Standard American tradition in literature opened with a section called the Puritan culture.
- 441990- Critical study developing from Rowlandson’s narrative is indicative.
English and American literary studies where held together by an uneasy alliance of older historicist and New Critics who were willing to suspend some of their disagreement for sake of creating graduate programs that combine historical coverage with training in close reading.